US Secretaries of State: roles and positioning in the system of power in the second half of the twentieth century
Ph.D. (History), Associate professor
National Aviation University, Кyiv, Ukraine
Abstract. The article is devoted to the interaction of US presidents and their secretaries of state in the second half of the twentieth century, when there was a modernization of foreign policy services, changes in the development and implementation of foreign policy. This has led to a more careful choice of one of the most important actors in shaping the country’s foreign policy – US Secretary of State. Emphasis is placed on the place and role of the Secretary of State in the US executive branch. The purpose of the article is to analyze the circumstances of the appointment of heads of state departments, their activities and interaction with US presidents.
The methodological basis of the article was the principle of historicism; a systematic approach, problem-chronological and descriptive methods were used. The scientific novelty of the study is an attempt to show not so much complexity and fragility in the interaction of the tandem «president – secretary of state». The article traces the sequence of positions held by state secretaries, analyzes their professional experience and personal qualities, which most likely determined the nature of relations with the president, as well as influenced the nature of the country’s foreign policy. It is shown how differences in specific issues between presidents and secretaries of state could cost the latter.
Conclusions. Considering the changes in the structure and functions of the US State Department after the Second World War, the author concludes that the role and place of the US Secretary of State is conditioned by the priority of foreign policy. With the onset of the Cold War, the White House began to pay more attention to the development and implementation of foreign policy than in previous decades. At the same time, along with the increase in the role of the President in foreign policy, there is a decrease in the role of the Secretary of State in this area. It is determined that most appointments to the post of US Secretary of State in the second half of the twentieth century were made for political and ideological reasons, and only a few of the secretaries were professional politicians. At the same time, the professionalism of the Secretary of State was not always a guarantee of the duration of his tenure. At the same time, the author emphasizes the uniqueness, professionalism, ambition, efficiency of each head of the State Department during the period under review.
Key words: US President, Secretary of State, Department of State, formation of the US foreign exchange rate.
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