Perception of the Metropolia by the Canadian Political Elite in 1914–1915 (According to the Materials of the Protocols of the Debates of the Canadian Parliament)
Ph.D student, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Lviv, Ukraine
In modern historical science, an integral component of scientific research is the component of the source base, which also applies to studies in world history. This article is devoted to the analysis of the protocols of the Canadian Parliament’s debates at the initial stage of World War I (1914–1915). The pages of the protocols of the Canadian Parliament’s describe the personal attitude of politicians to Metropolia, the public speeches of Canadian politicians in 1914–1915, the vision of representatives of political elites regarding the entry of the Canadian Confederation into the First World War. Notwithstanding the ideological diversity of Canadian politicians in the early twentieth century, who included both proponents of unity with Metropolia and opponents of the process, it is interesting that the entire political elite at the beginning of the Great War was consolidated in the matter of supporting the British Crown. Even former political opponents – R. Borden and W. Laurier – became ideological partners, who emphasized that Canada should support the British Empire at a difficult time. Importantly, French Canadian politicians, who were in part critical of British imperialism, also took a positive view of Britain. The main ideologue of the French Canadians at this time was considered A. Burassa, who supported Canada’s entry into the First World War. The main issues discussed at this time by parliamentarians were Canada’s military and material support for the armed conflict. Senators J. Bolduk, E. Smith, A. Lougheed, and P. Murphy actively called for the side of the Metropolia. In the article the author draws attention to the fact that politicians were negative about the military conflict itself. Canadian politicians consider German Empire to be the main culprit in the war, which violated Belgium’s sovereignty and started the war. As a result, the UK was forced to go to war, defending the neutrality of the Belgian state. According to most Canadian politicians, Canada’s main task was to support the British Empire.
Keywords: debate protocols, Canadian Parliament, World War I, Canada, United Kingdom, political elites.
1. Bychynskyi, Z. (1928). Istoriia Kanady, Vinipeg: [b. v.]. [In Ukrainian].
2. Zapotocʹkyj, M. (2019). Akt pro Brytansʹku Pivnichnu Ameryku 1867 r.:uxvalennya j osnovni polozhennya. Hileya: naukovyj visnyk, 3, 64–67. [In Ukrainian].
3. Zapotocʹkyj, M (2019). Brytansʹkyj «impersʹkyj federalizm» u viziyax kanadsʹkyx «loyalistiv» kincya XIX st. Yevropejsʹki istorychni studiyi: naukovyj zhurnal, 14, 73– 82. [In Ukrainian]. DOI: http://doi.org/10.17721/2524-048X.2019.14.73-82
4. Braun, K. (Ed.) (2019). Ilyustrovana istoriya Kanady. 25-e yuvilejne vydannya. Lʹviv: Litopys. [In Ukrainian].
5. Symonenko, E. (2018). Sem Xʹyuz y eho koncepcyya ymperskoj oborony Kanade nakanune Pervoj myrovoj vojny. Mediaportal Cyberleninka. 2018, https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/sem-hyuz-i-ego-kontseptsiya-imperskoy-oborony-v-kanade-nakanune-pervoy-mirovoy-voyny/viewer [In Russian].
6. Siromskyi, R. (2006). Kvebek: mizh federalizmom ta separatyzmom (1960‒1982), Lviv: Triada plius. [In Ukrainian].
7. Stalovierova, H. V. Evoliutsiia brytans’koho kolonializmu (1914–1921 rr.): avtoref. dys. … kand. ist. nauk: 07.00.02, Chernihivs’kyj derzhavnyj universytet imeni. T. Shevchenka. [In Ukrainian].
8. Sudak I. I. Formuvannia ta rozvytok suspil’no-politychnykh i ekonomichnykh vidnosyn mizh federal’nym tsentrom ta provintsiiamy u Kanadi (1867–1939 rr.): avtoref. dys. … kand. ist. nauk: 07.00.02, Kyivs’kyj natsional’nyj universytet imeni. T. Shevchenka. [In Ukrainian].
9. Tyshkov, V. & Koshelev, L. (1982). Istoriia Kanady, Moskva: Mysl. [In Russian].
10. Canadian Parliamentary Historical Resources. Browse. Library of Parliament. http://parl.canadiana.ca [In English].
11. Canadian Parliamentary Historical Resources. House of Commons Debates, 12th Parliament, 5th Session: Vol. 1. Library of Parliament. http://parl.canadiana.ca/view/oop.debates_HOC1205_01/1?r=0&s=1
12. Canadian Parliamentary Historical Resources. Senate debates,12th Parliament, 3rd Session: Vol.1 Library of Parliament. http://parl.canadiana.ca/view/oop.debates_SOC1203_01/1?r=0&s=1
13. Debates of the House of Commons of the Dominion of Canada. Special session war (1914). Vol.CXVIII. Ottawa: King’s Printer. [In English].
14. Holland and Bengough (Ed. ). (1914). Debates of the Senate of the Dominion of Canada. Extra session. Ottawa: King’s Printer. [In English].
15. Holland and Bengough (Ed. ). (1915). Debates of the Senate of the Dominion of Canada. Ottawa: King’s Printer. [In English].
16. Duguid, A.F. (1938). Official History of the Canadian Forces in the Great War, 1914 –1919. Vol I. Ottawa: King’s Printer. [In English].
17. Freeman, В. & Nielsen, R. (1999). Far from Home: Canadians in the First World War. Whitby: McGraw- Hill Ryerson. [In English].
18. Morton, D. (2005).The Headlines of August 1914: the Great War Comes to Canada. Policy Options, 105–111. [In English].
19. Olson, J.S. & Shadle, R. (1996). Historical Dictionary of the British Empire: A-J. London: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1996. [In English].