Аnastasiya Kosenko

Master’s Student (History)

ORCID logo 0000-0002-1372-9496

Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv, Ukraine


Abstract. The author considers the political aspect of cooperation between China and South America – its features and basis. The research reveals China’s main goals in South America, such as promoting a «one China» policy, access to raw materials, and building strong political contacts to increase its global influence. It also highlights the benefits that South American countries have sought to gain from cooperating with China. Particular attention is on China’s political cooperation with Brazil, Venezuela and Argentina under the administrations of left-wing ideologies (L. I. Lula da Silva, W. Chavez and N. Kirchner) and their key features. It was found that the presence of left-wing political forces in power in these countries contributed to the establishment of closer contacts with China. The main marker of intensifying political dialogue was the signing of a strategic partnership with Venezuela (2001), Argentina (2004) and Brazil (1993).
The aim of the article is to analyze the political cooperation between China and South American countries with a focus on Brazil, Venezuela and Argentina in the 1990’s – early 21st century (before the adoption of the «One Belt – One Road» strategy in March 2013).
The research methodology involves the application of a critical method to consider China’s political cooperation with South America. The historical-genetic method is used to consider the political cooperation (its origins and intensification) for its most perfect reproduction. The synthesis method was used to form a holistic picture of China’s political cooperation with the countries of the region. The comparative method is also used to compare the main features of China’s political cooperation with Brazil, Venezuela and Argentina.
The scientific novelty of the study is to consider the political aspect of China’s cooperation with South America, with a focus on Brazil, Venezuela and Argentina as key partners in the region, which helps to reveal previously unexplained aspects of this topic.
The study found that the intensification of China’s political cooperation with South America was facilitated on the one hand by the success of Beijing’s economic reforms, which prompted the Chinese government to increase its interest in the South American region, which is rich in raw materials; on the other – the liberalization of the economies of South America and their dynamic development. During the study period, China’s political cooperation was concentrated with Venezuela, Brazil and Argentina. It was found that a common feature of China’s political cooperation with these countries was the criticism of the international order led by the United States.

Key words: China, South America, «one China policy», Brazil, Argentina, Venezuela.

Submitted: 28.01.2022



  1. Vakarchuk, K. (2020). Latin American vector of China’s foreign policy. Borisfen Intel: Independent Analytical Center for Geopolitical Research. [In Ukrainian].
  2. Taran, M. (2004). China and Latin America: the realities of economic cooperation and political implications. Scientific Bulletin of the Diplomatic Academy of Ukraine,10 (2), 30[In Ukrainian].
  3. Almeida, P. R. (2006). The Foreign Policy of the Lula Government: The Record and Prospects. Konrad Adenauer Stiftung.[In English].
  4. Bonilla, S.A. & García, P. M. (2014). Latin America, the Carribean and China: Subregional strategic San José, C.R.: FLACSO. [In English].
  5. Busilli, S. V. (2019). Las relaciones Brasil-China: de Lula a Temer. La autonomía como estrategia. Revistas de la Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, 4, 97[In Spanish].
  6. Cesarin, S. (2008). Continuidad y cambio en las relaciones Argentina – China. Centro de Estudos em Geopolítica e Relações Internacionais (CENEGRI), 4, 120.[In Spanish].
  7. Palabras del presidente de la nación Néstor Kirchner en el seminario Argentina – China, socios para en crecimiento. Archivos de la Casa Rosada. [In Spanish].
  8. Ríos, X. (2015, Noviembre 20). China y Venezuela: impulso, continuidad e incertidumbres. Observatorio de la política China.[In Spanish].
  9. Rosales, O. & Kiwayama, M. (2012, Marzo). China y América Latina y el Caribe: hacia una relación económica y estratégica. CEPAL NU. [In Spanish].
  10. Trinkunas, H. (2020, July 20). Testing the limits of China and Brazils partnership. The Brookings Institution.[In English].