Olga Fabryka-Protska, PhD (Arts), Vasil Stefanyk Institute of Art of the Precarpathian National University


The article brings to light the history of Lemko-Rusyn emigration to the USA and Canada. General characteristics of the migration periods have been revealed. The directions of Lemko-Rusyn cultural organizations have been considered.

In the process of identity formation Lemko-Rusyn immigrants from one region and birthplace, from one village and sometimes from the same family, determined their national-ethnic identity in different ways. The mass emigration of Lemkos to Canada began after the World War I. They were sent to the sparsely inhabited lands of Western Canada (Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba). Newcomers have been working at existing metallurgical factories, farms or founded new ones on comparatively profitable terms, grouped around the Greek-catholic Church, created educational societies and socio-cultural organizations.

In the USA, the Lemko Assistance Committee, Lemkivschyna and Lemko newspapers, Lemko Union organization of the USA and Canada and Lemko Canadian Union were founded by Lemko activists in the period between the two word wars. Today, all Lemko and Rusyn organizations in the USA and Canada are arranging numerous effective events aimed at popularizing their national customs, preserving their native dialect in particular, etc.

Therefore, even the general characteristic of the processes of the Ukrainian immigration to the North American continent, their adaptation to new living conditions in the foreign ethnic environment of the USA shows their peculiarities. Each immigration wave reflects the specific character of different periods of time as well as different values. All the immigration waves, though different in their nature, acquired their own experience and created their own history.

Key words: history, emigration, Lemkos, Rusyns, organizations, activities.

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DOI http://doi.org/10.17721/2521-1706.2018.05.95-101