Mykhailo Boiko, Student (Master Degree)
Oleksandr Ivanov, PhD., Associate рrof. Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv
The article examines the process of theoretical formulation and practical implementation of “denazification” program of internee German prisoners of war who were dislocated on the territory of the United States of America. On the basis of the Military Department orders, the Military Governor’s reports, memoirs of the US political figures, the memories of former German prisoners of war, diaries of staff who was responsible for the denazification program, materials of German newspapers on the territory of the American occupation zone, the authors studied the main mechanisms, directions, and issues of “denazification” carried out in camps for the prisoners of war 1943-1945.
The denazification project originated in the United States migrant communities. The ideological founder of the “recharacterisation” course, British Edward Davidson, formed the basic provisions during 1943-1945, shared to interned German prisoners of war, who took the “recharacterisation” within the framework of acquaintance with the political system, economic conditions and the cultural heritage of the United States on the territory of Fort Jetta, Corny, Weserill. Denazification helped to reveal the criminal nature of the Nazi regime, to discredit the National Socialists and to facilitate the get away tendency from Nazi ideology. Within the framework of the Special Project, more than 39,000 former Wehrmacht soldiers were ready to serve under the guidance of officers of the Military Administration across the American Occupation Zone. Edward Davison’s efforts have not been succeeded because of bureaucratic barriers in Germany, as former prisoners of war were not provided with jobs on administrative positions.
The United States intended to create a new type of citizen by integrating different instruments of political socialization such as the media, schools and civil society. Rarely, when the nation has undergone such an attempt to change political relations in a democratic direction in such a short time.
Keywords: Prisoners of War (PoW), denazification, The United States of America, national socialism, Germany
- DAVIDSON, E. (1959). The death and life of Germany: An Account of the American Occupation. New York: Alfred Knopf.
- TENT, J. (1982). Mission on the Rhine: Re-education and Denazification in US-Occupied Germany. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
- LEVY, A. (2015). Promoting Democracy and Denazification: American Policymaking and German Public Opinion. Diplomacy and Statecraft.
- NIETHAMMER, L. (1972). Entnazifizierung in Bayern: Säuberung und Rehabilitierung unter amerikanischer Besatzung. Frankfurt/Main: S. Fischer.
- HEINEMANN, E. (1996). The Hour of the Woman: Memories of Germany’s “Crisis Years” and West German National Identity. American Historical Review, Vol. 101, No. 2. pp. 354-395.
- MCCRACKEN, G-E. “The Prisoners of War Re-education Program in the Years 1943-1946.” (1953). // Unpublished report. Washington, D.C., Dept. of Army, Office of the Chief of Military History.
- KLAUSCH, H.-P. (1990). Die 999er: Von der Brigade „Z“ zur Afrika-Division 999. Die Bewährungsbataillone und ihr Anteil am antifaschistischen Widerstand. Köln: Röderberg-Vlg.
- KNAPPEN, M. (1947). And Call It Peace. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
- Davison P. Half Remembered: A Personal History. New York: Harper and Row, 1973. 236 p.
- “Concerning Special Projects Branch of the Office of the Provost Marshall General.” (1944). Farrand Collection, box.2, folder 5, 16 December 1944. pp. 2-3.
- “Secret, Comments on major Davison’s Memorandum for the Chief of Staff, Army Service Command, on Reorientation of German Prisoners of War.” (1944). Farrand Collection, box.2, folder 3, 28 August 1944. P. 3.
- SPEAKMAN, C.-E., JR. (1948). “Re-education of German Prisoners of War in the United States During World War II,” unpublished M.A. thesis. University of Virginia. P. 24.
- ALLESTON, C. (1945). “Democratic ABCs for Nazi PWs”. New York Times Magazine, 21 November 1945. pp. 8 and 32.
- “Re-education of Enemy Prisoners of War, Projects II and III”. (1945). US PMGO, Spec. Proj. Div., 24 March 1945. B. H. Powel memorandum.
- “Report on the Experimental Administrative School for Selected German Prisoners of War, Projects II and III.” (1945). US PMGO, Spec. Proj. Div. P. 30.
- “Historical Monograph of the Re-education of Enemy Prisoners of War, Projects II and III.” (1945). US PMGO, Spec. Proj. Div. P. 9.
- “Screening of German Prisoners of War, Projects II and III.” (1945). US PMGO, Spec. Proj. Div. 7 June 1945. P. 1.
- BA-MA, B205/1223 (1946). Stuttgart Zeitung, 12 January 1946.
- Die Wochenpost, Nr. 65. (1946). Die Wochenpost, 1 Februar 1946. S. 7.
- “The Psychology of the German PW”. (1998). Walter Schoenstedt Collection. UC Davis, California. P. 3.
- ANDERSCH, A. (1998). My disappearance in Providence and Other Stories, trans. Ralph Manheim. New York: Doubleday and Co. 287 p..
- RICHTER, H.-W. (1962). Fünfzehn Jahre, in: ders. (Hrsg.). Almanach der Gruppe 47. Reinbek. S. 8 und 10.
- HOCKING, W.-E. (1954). Experiment in Education: What We Can Learn from Teaching Germany. Chicago: Henry Regnery Co. 179 p.
- Democratic Society (Demokratische Gesellschaft) Report. (1947). Ehrmann Correspondence, 1 May 1947. P.2-3.
- “School for German Prisoners of War.” (1945). Eisenhower to Commanding Generals, Eastern Military District and Western Military District. NA, RG 260 OMGUS. 44-45/21/1.
- “Chois’ Report on Querqueville”. (1945). NA RG 260, OMGUS 44-45/21/1, 10 August 1945.
- “OMG Heidelberg to OMG, US Zone”. (1945). NA RG 260, OMGUS 15/114-1/7, 5 December 1945.
- “German Prisoners of War” (1948). New York Times, 16 February 1948. P. 10.