Ph. D. (History), Associate Professor, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv, Ukraine
Researcher ID: W-1566-2019
Abstract. The article is devoted to the four wars between Great Britain and France in the late 1680s and early 1760s, as a result of which it was determined who would own the territory of modern Canada: King William’s War or War of the League of Augsburg, Queen Anne’s War (or War of the Spanish Succession), King George’s War (War of the Austrian Succession) and the Seven Years’ War (Conquest).
The purpose of the article is to consider the British-French wars of the 17th – 18th centuries on the territory of Canada, which determined its future.
The research methodology is based on the principle of historicism and problem-chronological and complex approaches. Comparative and analytical methods made it possible to compare the starting positions of Great Britain and France in North America and the course and results of their armed struggle for Canada in the context of the wars of both empires on different continents.
The scientific novelty of the study consists in an attempt to show the complexity, consistency and patterns of the British-French struggle for Canada. Its circumstances and main milestones are traced, which influenced not only the results of the struggle, but also laid the foundation for the development of Canada for the following centuries. This, as well as insufficient attention to the problem in Ukrainian Canadian studies, strengthens the relevance of this article.
Conclusions. As a result of the British-French wars, Great Britain became the victor and the most powerful colonial and maritime empire. Instead, France ceded positions and possessions, in particular in North America. The first three wars began in Europe, and later hostilities also began in North America, involving mainly the colonists and their Native American allies. But the last, Seven Years’ War began precisely in North America. The British used regular troops in it. The British fleet also played a significant role, as well as the larger population and production capacity of their colonies compared to the French. If in the first three wars the French were able to compensate for these factors due to more effective mobilization and the involvement of Indians as allies, then in the fourth and last war they were defeated. The main consequence was the termination of the existence of New France and the consolidation of dominance in the region of Great Britain, which determined the further development of Canada as a colony, and later the dominion of Great Britain.
Key words: Canada, British-French wars, New France, conquest of Canada, British colonies in North America.
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