Mykhailo Kirsenko, PhD (history), Professor, National Kyiv Mohyla Academy


The article regards the Enlightenment influence and European participation in the War of Independence. Among the Glorious Revolution thinkers attention is paid to constitutionalist John Locke ideas of mutual responsibilities of rulers and subjects, as well as division of three branches of power. Thomas Paine had come from England and inspired American freedom fighters with his arguments of rights and duty of people to resist tyranny and oppression. There is traced radicalization of the American Revolution, and its foreign policy gradual development. The USA replaced a principle of monarchic suzerainty with postulate of national sovereignty, practiced irregular tactics and irregular diplomacy using colonial contradictions to get crucial financial support, weaponry supplies, and direct assistance by France as well as promoting international isolation of Great Britain. The European liberals and military officers, plaid important role in attracting public opinion to America, organizing infrastructure, training infantry and cavalry, transforming voluntary militia into the Continental Congress regular army and navy. It is compared mutual influences of the American and French Revolution reflected in documents and biographies. The Frenchmen La Fayette, Beaumarchais and Rochambeau, Poles Kościuszko and Pulaski, German von Steuben, and Scotsman Paul Jones proved to be the most distinguished among foreign friends of the young nation contributing a lot to its victory. Their self-sacrificed and effective efforts were highly estimated by George Washington, Benjamin Franklin and other Fathers of the USA.

USA, France, American Revolution, Continental Congress, ,independence.

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DOI: 152