Tetiana PergaPh.D., Senior Researcher, State Institution “Institute of World History of NAS of Ukraine”, Kyiv

Abstract.

The development of the idea of wildlife conservation in the USA has investigated. The role of colonization of the North American continent in attracting interest to wildlife has identified. Two vectors of such influence are determined: negative impact (destruction of many species of flora and fauna) and positive (the discovery of unique natural landscapes). The contribution of American painters, writers, scholars, and statesmen of late 19th – 20th centuries in the disclosure of the non-economic value of wildlife and the creation of the first areas of its protection has defined. The US legislation on wildlife conservation in the twentieth century has analyzed. The role of US President Theodore Roosevelt in establishing the first US nature reserves has revealed. It has concluded that on the eve of World War II, American society has already spread an understanding of the importance of protecting wildlife and American presidents carried out fragmentary measures in this area. Despite the widespread perception of wildlife in American society in terms of assessing its economic value, which was associated with the needs of hunting and tourism development, an understanding of the importance of preserving the species of wild flora and fauna for the development of ecosystems has been already developed. On this basis, in the second half of the twentieth century, the first legislative acts on the protection of wildlife were adopted. It has proved that the first in the world the United States gave a legal definition of wildlife and enshrined it in 1964 the Wilderness Act. The term “wild river” introduced by the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act (1968) has analyzed. The growth of the National System of Wildlife Refuges and the procedure for the creation of such sites in the USA have considered. The modern problems of wildlife conservation in the USA are clarified. It is found that they are closely connected with the considerable increase in resource requirements due to population growth and urbanization. A conclusion is made about the US influence on the development of wildlife conservation in European countries, which adopted the first laws in wildlife protection only in the 1990s.         

Key words: wildlife, USA, environmental protection, colonization.

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DOI 10.17721/2521-1706.2018.06.20-30